Hyperthyroidism |Symptoms | causes | Treatment | diet & more

Are you Suffering from Hyperthyroidism or want to know everything about it? If yes, then you’re on right place.

I have written this article in a manner that everyone can read effortlessly whether they belong to medical background or not.

In This Blog

    • Hyperthyroidism causes
    • Signs and Symptoms hyperthyroidism
    • hyperthyroidism treatment 
    • hyperthyroidism diet
    • hyperthyroidism diagnosis
    • Side effects of hyperthyroidism
    • hyperthyroidism Treatment
    • hyperthyroidism test
    • Hyperthyroidism Diet
    • Hyperthyroidism diagnosis

 

What Is Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism is a disorder that occurs when our thyroid gland produces more hormones than the body requires.

Hyperthyroidism is sometimes called thyrotoxicosis, the technical term for too much thyroid hormone present in the blood.

Thyroid hormones circulate throughout the body in the bloodstream and virtually act on every tissue and a cell in the body.  

Hyperthyroidism causes many of the body’s functions to speed up, and it is more common in females.

Thyroid gland

  • A butterfly-shaped organ present in the neck region in front of the larynx and trachea.

  • It controls the metabolism (set of chemical reactions that occur in our body like energy production, digestion..) of the body.

  • It controls metabolism by synthesizing & producing two key hormones, T3 & T4

Glands involved in hyperthyroidism 

There are three glands involved in hyperthyroidism:

HypothalamusPituitaryThyroid
  1. Hypothalamus: A small gland in the brain that controls the pituitary gland by releasing certain chemicals.

  1. Pituitary Gland: Oval-shaped structure present in our brain just behind the nose, it controls all the Endocrine glands including the Thyroid gland by releasing different stimulating hormones like TSH.

  1. Thyroid gland: Releases T3 & T4 whenever stimulated by TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone) and controls whole-body metabolism.

How hyperthyroidism develops

 

hyperthyroidism mechanism

Hypothalamus, pituitary gland and Thyroid gland, normally these 3 glands work in coordination with each other. If there is a defect with any of them, hyperthyroidism can develop.

 STEPS

  • Hypothalamus releases TRH which acts on the pituitary gland to secrete TSH.

  • The pituitary releases TSH that binds with receptors present on the surface of the thyroid gland and stimulates it to release thyroid hormones, T3 & T4.

  • Thyroid glands produce T3 & T4, which further act on every single cell of the body and control almost all their activities that we call metabolism.

  • Thyroid hormones act as negative feedback to inhibit further secretion of TRH & TSH when Hormone concentration will become optimum in the blood.

Hyperthyroidism Symptoms

Def: Symptoms are the clinical feature which a patient tells to the doctor.

  1. Heat Intolerance

  2. Excess sweating

  3. Rapid heart rate

  4. Weight loss

  5. Increased bowel movement (Diarrhea)

  6. Decreased concentration

  7. Nervousness

  8. Restlessness

  9. Pruritus

  10. Fatigue

  11. Muscle weakness

  12. Menstrual irregularities 

Signs of Hyperthyroidism

DEF: Clinical feature which the doctor finds out when a patient visits him. 

  • Fine resting finger tremors 

  • Moist and warm skin

  • Fever

  • Hyperreflexia 

  • Fine hairs

  • Broken and whitish nail 

  • Sometimes angina 

  • Irregular Heart Rhythm (Atrial fibrillation)  

  • Finger clubbing

  • Swelling of Finger (Thyroid Acropathy)

  • Enlargement of the eye (Exophthalmos)

Hyperthyroidism Causes

Hyperthyroidism has several causes, but the most important ones are:

  • Graves disease

It is an Autoimmune disorder and the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Another name, diffuse toxic goiter means enlargement of the whole thyroid gland and it feels smooth on palpitation.

It is more common in females.

Mechanism of grave disease: Normally our body produces antibodies when any foreign particle like dust or virus enters our body. 

Sometimes, for any reason, the body produces antibodies against its own tissue.

In case of Thyroid, we call these antibodies TSI (Thyroid-stimulating Immunoglobulin). 

TSI is very similar to TSH in function and shape and produced in Huge amounts so It can compete for TSH and successfully bind with Thyroid receptors.

Most dangerous quality of 

TSI is to bind with thyroid receptors for a longer duration than TSH because of this it will continue to produce t3 & t4 which will lead to Hyperthyroidism.

Symptoms of graves disease: Most Symptoms are like those of Hyperthyroidism but there are  few symptoms specifically related to The graves disease, eg:

Pretibial myxedema (thickening of the skin in the lower part of feet and it is usually bilateral).

Exophthalmos: Protrusion of eyes because of the accumulation of fat around eyeball

Diagnosis of Graves’ disease:

  • Examination, symptoms 

  • Thyroid blood tests

  1. Thyroid function test will show High T4, T3 & low TSH (feedback system)

  2. Thyroid antibodies will be high in blood eg: TSI.

  • Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (Plummer’s disease or toxic multinodular goiter, toxic adenoma).

Nodule means an unusual swelling of a thyroid cell.

When many cells swell multi nodules will form which will cause enlargement of the thyroid gland, both multi nodules & enlargement collectively called a multinodular goiter.

Some nodules function autonomously and cause hyperthyroidism by producing high amounts of thyroid hormones in the blood, that is why they are toxic. 

  • Thyroiditis

It is not because of overproduction, but because of inflammation t3 & t4 Secreting cells become leaky and release more thyroid hormone in the blood.

Types of thyroiditis:

  1. Acute/infectious thyroiditis: Caused by bacteria.

  2. Subacute thyroiditis: A virus can be the cause.

  3. Autoimmune thyroiditis: The immune system is involved in it.

  4. Radiation-induced thyroiditis: Most hyperthyroidism patients take radioactive iodine for treatment produce, and it can cause thyroiditis.

  5. Drug-induced thyroiditis: Caused by drugs like Amiodarone, Lithium, Interferons, Cytokinesis.

  6. Postpartum thyroiditis: This occurs in women after they give birth.

  • Testicular choriocarcinoma

Cancer that occurs in males, although it is rare but can cause hyperthyroidism.

Treatment of Hyperthyroidism

Anti-thyroid medications: propylthiouracil and methimazole are the most prescribed medications.

They gradually reduce symptoms of hyperthyroidism by

preventing the thyroid gland from producing excess

amounts of hormones.

Symptoms usually begin to improve in 6 to 12 weeks, but treatment with anti-thyroid medication typically continues at least a year and often longer.

Surgery: To remove all or part of the thyroid, called a

Thyroidectomy.

Disadvantage: Most people who have this procedure, eventually

develop an underactive thyroid and will need to take

thyroid hormone-replacement medication for the rest of their life.

Beta-blockers: To slow down your heart rate. These medicines do not lower your thyroid hormone levels.

but help relieve symptoms related to a rapid heart rate.

Ask your doctor about supplementing your diet: If you’ve lost a great deal of weight or experiencing

muscle wasting, you may be benefited by adding extra

calories and protein to your diet.

Get enough calcium and vitamin D: Hyperthyroidism may contribute to thinning of bones, so it is

important to get enough calcium every day to prevent osteoporosis.

Get regular exercise: Exercise will help

you feel better and improve your muscle tone and

cardiovascular system.

Wear sunglasses: When your eyes protrude, they’re

more vulnerable to ultraviolet rays and more sensitive to sunlight.

Hyperthyroidism tests

Some common tests to assess thyroid function include:

  • TSH assay

  • Free T4 (thyroxine)

  • T3 (triiodothyronine)

  • Thyroid antibody.

  1. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH):  

Is what the pituitary gland releases to tell the thyroid when to produce thyroid hormones. 

low level of TSH in the blood usually means that thyroid function is excessive (hyperthyroidism)

while a high level of TSH generally shows that too little thyroid hormone is being produced (hypothyroidism).

2. T4 (thyroxine): 

An excess of T4 in the blood shows an overactive thyroid, whereas low levels of T4 show underactive thyroid function. Testing T4 blood levels also helps doctors pinpoint whether thyroid disease is for a problem in the pituitary gland or the thyroid gland itself.

3. T3 (triiodothyronine:

T3 is another important thyroid hormone. T3 levels can fluctuate quit a bit, but high levels of T3 typically because of hyperthyroidism, while hypothyroidism causes low levels.

Thyroid antibody:

Autoimmune thyroid diseases (like Hashimoto’s thyroiditis or Graves’ disease) cause the immune system to release proteins called antibodies that attack the thyroid as if it were foreign tissue. Blood tests can reveal the presence of  thyroid antibodies and allow doctors to diagnose autoimmune diseases.

Note: If your blood tests show that you have a thyroid problem, but don’t provide enough information for a clear diagnosis, you may need additional thyroid tests like: 

  • Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU)

  • Thyroid scan 

  • Ultrasound

Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU): The thyroid gland uses iodine in the blood to make thyroid hormones. Swallowing a small radioactive iodine pill helps doctors measure how much iodine your thyroid gland uses. If the thyroid gland draws upon a lot of the iodine released by the pill (leading to a high RAIU reading), hyperthyroidism is probably.

The cause. A low RAIU usually reflects an underactive thyroid.

Thyroid scan: Often used along with RAIU, a thyroid scan can reveal specific regions in the thyroid that are using either too much or too little radioactive iodine. This scan can help doctors decide whether a thyroid biopsy is necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Ultrasound: Ultrasound images of the thyroid can show underlying structural causes of thyroid disease such as a tumor or cyst.

Complication of Hyperthyroidism

Heart problems: Some of the most serious complications of hyperthyroidism involve the heart. These include a rapid heart rate, a heart rhythm disorder called atrial fibrillation, and congestive heart failure.

Brittle bones: Untreated hyperthyroidism can also lead

to, weak, brittle bones (osteoporosis).

Eye problems: People with Graves’ ophthalmopathy

develop eye problems, including bulging, red or

swollen eyes, sensitivity to light, and blurring or

double vision.

Others: Weight loss, Hand tremors, Corneal ulcer.

Diet for Hyperthyroidism

Several food choices can help in the control of the thyroid level and boost the process of healing and improving.

  • Dairy products like, Milk, cheese, curd to prevent calcium loss from bone.

  • Eat healthy fats like omega-3 fatty acids and they are abundant in nuts, almonds, walnuts but if you get Brazil nuts that will be much better.

  • Use olive oil and flaxseed oil. They are very helpful in curing hyperthyroidism.

  •  Cruciferous vegetables like Cauliflower, Broccoli, cabbage, they’re helpful in the reduction of thyroid hormone so we have to use them in case of hyperthyroidism and avoid hypothyroidism.

  • Kinds of seafood 

FOOD TO AVOID IN HYPERTHYROIDISM

IODINE: In our Body, about 70 to 80% of the iodine stored in

thyroid gland and it is very Essential and causes the production of thyroid hormones so hyperthyroid patients must avoid excessive use of Iodine products like Table salt.

Soy products: avoid soy products like soy milk, soy cake, soy sauce, and Soybean.

Hydrogenated vegetable oil: Crackers, doughnuts, chips and related products

Caffeine: Found in tea and coffee.

QUESTIONs FOR YOU

Comment section is seeking for your answer

  1. Does this article was helpful for you?
  2. Are you suffering from Hyperthyroidism?
  3. Do you know anyone who is suffering from Hyperthyroidism?

This Post Has One Comment

  1. Badal

    Here everyone can get info in accordance to their perspective✌️ appreciated👌

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